LESSONS

HEALTH, SAFETY, ENVIRONMENT

We are able to produce safety when operating with 3 resistance lines:

  • Perfect design – perfect implemented (Are we perfect?)
  • Mindfulness and flexibility in operations. (Are we mindful?)
  • Effective crisis management in case of emergency. (Are we prepared?)

In all countries of the EU, the risks prevailing at work sites have to be assessed and evaluated. The determination of relevant measures to be adopted in order to control risks is just as obligatory as is the documentation in a safety and health protection document (Council Directives 89/391/EEC and 92/104/EEC). Without safe and routine-type blasting essential tasks required in the mining industry would be inconceivable.
Since fatal accidents or serious injuries have to be anticipated in the event of a failure during blasting processes, handling explosives is, in principle, to be considered as high risk activity. Accident statistics show that the likelihood of injury when blasting is small, but if an accident occurs, the result is fatal or at the very least serious.

  • Identify the hazards and identify who is at risk
  • evaluate the risk
  • decide on safety measures
  • record the assessment
  • review

An essential feature in order to achieve this will be that the persons entrusted with blasting operations familiarize themselves in detail with the kinds of hazards at stake and arrange for the necessary safety measures to be adopted.


Alfred Maier

AM 

Title: Dipl.Ing. Dr. mont 
Faculty: Chair of Mining Engineering and Mineral Economics
Department: RIC ESEE
Phone: +43-3842-402-7600
Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Blast fragmentation: Basics, models and measurements

The primary purpose of rock fragmentation is to create rock fragments that can be loaded, hauled, crushed and milled efficiently in underground construction, quarrying and mining. To promote this the factors that influence fragmentation are described and the Kuz-Ram model introduced. This model is then applied to specific cases and its accuracy discussed. An improved fragment size distribution is then introduced, the Swebrec function and its use explored. The concept of cracks inside fragments and how they can improve comminution is then described and finally the Mine-to-mill concept.
In the second part fragmentation measurements are treated. First the accuracy of 2D image based methods is discussed and quarry and mine examples given. It is shown how to combine image based methods with sieving of lab samples to construct fragment size distributions for large quarry and open cast mine blasts. At the end 3D image methods are described, as are examples of their use and finally general recommendations given.


Finn Ouchterlony

FO 

Title: Sr.scientist, Dr.mont.h.c., Dr.techn.
Faculty: Chair of Mining Engineering and Mineral Resources
Phone: +43-3842-402-2009 or +43-664-80898-2009
Mail:This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Code of Good Practice, Environmental Protection and Flyrock/Vibrations/Noise

Over the last twenty years, the intensive road construction in the Republic of Croatia, the construction of tunnels on highways, connecting roads and other roads, and deepening the bottom of a port, have resulted in intensive mining activity and imposed additional requirements on blasting operations due to the impact of blasting on the environment and surrounding facilities. The Faculty of Mining, Geology and Petroleum Engineering was involved in many project aimed to determination of acceptable environmental influences of the blasting. Results of the project researches lead to determination of the criteria for permitted ground velocity oscillation values and defining parameters and blasting technology regarding the protection of surrounding structures. Special conditions in blasting, regarding the protection of surrounding structures, are determined by site conditions, and location and condition of surrounding structures, blasting technology and rock mass condition. The above-mentioned projects were carried out in various conditions and result that have raised from project experience secure the safe and environmental friendly blasting approach.


Mario Dobrilović

VB 

Associate professor
Faculty of Mining, Geology and Petroleum Engineering
Department of Mining and Geotechnical Engineering
Pierottijeva 6,
10002 Zagreb, Croatia
GSM: +385 91 6195859
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. 


Introduction to blasting & drill hole deviations

The lectures presented should give an overview about the most common explosives used in mining, construction and civil works today. New developments and improvements in emulsion technology for cartridged products as well as for bulk explosives are crucial to succeed when replacing dynamites for safety and economical reasons. The explosives properties and quality assurance have a very strong influence on the result of the blast. Software modeling as basis for blast optimization can visually show the impact of known and unknown factors like exact burden (face profiling) and drill deviation. The influence of geology, blast layout, drilling accuracy and initiation technique is discussed in detail. Reasons for drill deviation are most likely related to hole diameter, hole depth, drill rig and equipment used, experience of the operator and geological conditions. This topic is covered by several case examples in different open pit operations.


Mark, Ganster

FO 

Title:
Faculty:
Department:
Phone: +43 699 13585280
Email:This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Detonation theory and numerical modeling

The lecture will cover fundamental aspects and theories of detonation and performance prediction of energetic materials, with emphasis on principles and possibilities of numerical modeling and simulation of these processes. The lecture will include the following topics:

  • Explosive chemical transformation, steady and unsteady processes
  • Basic detonation theories (C-J, ZND, non-equilibrium ZND models)
  • Initiation and propagation of detonation  wave
  • Reactive flow models , incorporation of reaction kinetics into hydrocodes
  • Numerical modeling of initiation and propagation of detonation using hydrocodes and reactive flow models
  • Performance prediction by thermochemical equilibrium calculation
  • Chemical equilibrium in reactive multiphase and multicomponent systems
  • Equations of state of combustion/detonation products and their effect on accuracy of calculation
  • Expansion of detonation products, evaluation of detonation energy by thermochemical calculations
  • Non-ideal detonation: definition and causes, effect of charge diameter and confinement
  • Numerical modeling of non-ideal detonation using hydrocodes and thermochemical codes with incorporated kinetics thermochemical calculation

Muhamed Suceska

MS 

Principal Research Scientist
Brodarski institute
Av. V. Holjevca 20,
10002 Zagreb, Croatia
GSM: +385 91 6195859
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Blast fragmentation: planning and control

In the production process from the deposit to the final saleable rock product blast fragmentation might play quite an important role, especially when the size of the rock product is related to its economic value and when certain fraction of the broken rock (typically the fine material) cannot be sold or only at low prize. Apart from the material value, the particle size of the blasted rock may strongly influence also the productivity and the costs of the loading and the hauling process in a quarry or mining operation. In the lecture the basics of blast fragmentation will be addressed and the possibility to influence the particle size distribution of the blasted material will be discussed. A presentation of modern methods of on line blast fragmentation measurements, an explanation of their capabilities and their shortcomings will complete the lecture.


Peter Moser

PM 

Title: Univ.-Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Dr.mont.
Faculty: Chair of Mining Engineering and Mineral Economics
Phone: +43-3842-402-2000  or + 43 664 52 67 929
Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


New class of primary initiating explosives with the high level of safety and precision accuracy of short-delay blasting. Optical systems of explosives charge initiation (OPSIN)

In collaboration with colleagues from St.Petersburg Polytechnic University the new class of primary initiating substances with record-breaking low energy of ignition and sensitivity to mechanical influences is discovered; the technology of their reception is developed. The important practical result is creation of the first-ever exper-imental sample of new optical system of initiation of charges of the explosives which basic element is new precision action and safe in usage of the optical detonator. The system is the first which is characterized by two operating modes: transfer of laser radiation on optical paths and direct through air atmosphere.

The main issues of the lecture are the physical laws of initiating of explosives by laser irradiation. The back-ground of the optical initiation system creation, the results of experimental studies, including a new previously unknown property of the anomalously high sensitivity of some complex salts of metals and some energy-photosensitive compositions to the action of the laser pulse will be discussed. The general principles of syn-thesis of photosensitive compositions will be formulated; the theoretical and experimental results of the inves-tigations and their use in the initiation of the explosives will be shown. Some examples of using the system in practice will be demonstrated. The application of the photosensitive instead of the regular, advantages and disadvantages of experimental optical maser, detonators and optical system as a whole will be discussed.

Valerii Soboliev

PM 

Title: Professor
Faculty: Faculty of Construction
Department of Construction, Geotechnics and Geomechanics
Karl Marx Av., 19
49600 Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine
GSM: +380503426198
Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Influence of initiation energy on velocity of detonation of ANFO and heavy ANFO blends

Ammonium nitrate fuel oil (ANFO) explosives are simple, two-component explosives that consist of ammonium nitrate prills and fuel oil. ANFO is an explosive which, despite having a low velocity of detonation and detonation pressure, is characterised by a high blasting efficiency due to the large volume of gas generated. ANFO is the most common explosive for civil use in the fields of mining and civil engineering. Some properties of ANFO like poor water resistance, low density and low velocity of detonation can be improved by mixing ANFO with a certain percentage of emulsion. These explosives are called Heavy ANFO blends.
The main topic of the lecture is influence of initiation energy on velocity of detonation of ANFO and heavy ANFO blends. In the first test ANFO explosives were tested in steel pipes, and detonators and boosters of different masses and initiation energies were used for initiation. Velocity of detonation was measured by discontinues method. In the second test three types of primers were used for the initiation of ANFO and Heavy ANFO blend and the velocity of detonation was measured in situ by a continuous method. Based on the results of measurements, the relationship between way of initiation and velocity of detonation of ANFO and Heavy ANFO blend is established.

Vječislav Bohanek

VB 

Senior  assistant
Faculty of Mining, Geology and Petroleum Engineering
Department of Mining and Geotechnical Engineering
Pierottijeva 6,
10002 Zagreb, Croatia
GSM: +385 91 3113456
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


THE ROLE OF POSITION OF INITIATION, INITIATION ENERGY AND STEMMING ON BREAKAGE

Ammonium nitrate fuel oil (ANFO) explosives are simple, two-component explosives that consist of ammonium nitrate prills and fuel oil. ANFO is an explosive which, despite having a low velocity of detonation and detonation pressure, is characterised by a high blasting efficiency due to the large volume of gas generated. ANFO is the most common explosive for civil use in the fields of mining and civil engineering. Some properties of ANFO like poor water resistance, low density and low velocity of detonation can be improved by mixing ANFO with a certain percentage of emulsion. These explosives are called Heavy ANFO blends

The main topic of the lecture is influence of initiation energy on velocity of detonation of ANFO and heavy ANFO blends and the impact of position of initiation on the result of the blasting performance.

In the first tests ANFO explosives were tested in steel pipes, and detonators and boosters of different masses and initiation energies were used for initiation. Velocity of detonation was measured by discontinues method. In the second test three types of primers were used for the initiation of ANFO and Heavy ANFO blend and the velocity of detonation was measured in situ by a continuous method. Based on the results of measurements, the relationship between way of initiation and velocity of detonation of ANFO and Heavy ANFO blend is established.

The impact of position of initiation on the blasting performance is investigated "in situ" method of linear burden increase and also with clatering method.


Zvonimir Ester

ZE 

Faculty of Mining, Geology and Petroleum Engineering
Department of Mining and Geotechnical Engineering
Pierottijeva 6,
10002 Zagreb, Croatia
GSM: +385 91 1945214
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


NAVIGATION