Lab activities

The monitoring performed in the Kostanjek Landslide Observatory carries out analysis and research, which are aimed at enhancement of the security of citizens at the landslide area, advancement of scientifi c investigation and advancement of higher education. Observatory for the Kostanjek landslide monitoring is equipped with approximately 40 sensors for automated monitoring of movement of the Kostanjek landslide, as well as for monitoring of landslide causes, rainfall and earthquake. Various types of sensor networks are installed at the area of the Kostanjek landslide in Podsused, whose approximate size is 1 km2, and they encompass the following: (1) sensors for displacement measurement (GNSS receivers, short- and long-span wire-extensometers, vertical extensometers, inclinometer); (2) sensors for hydro-meteorological and hydrogeological measurements (rain
gauge, pore pressure gauges in boreholes, water level gauges in ells/boreholes); and (3) sensors for geophysical measurements (accelerometers). Most sensors communicate in near-real-ti me with automated data transfer to the data center located at the University of Zagreb’s Faculty of Mining, Geology and Petroleum Engineering (UNIZG-RGNF), the Department of Geology and Geological Engineering. The photograph shows central monitoring station of the Kostanjek Landslide Observatory, one of 23 locations with installed sensors.

Head of the Lab: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it., Assoc. Prof., PhD.

Services:

  • Continuous monitoring of the Kostanjek landslide movement and its causes (precipitation and earthquakes) includes data processing and preliminary analysis of the monitoring data captured by 15 GNSS stations, 7 accelerometers (installed in boreholes at the depths of 1.5 m, 20 m and 90 m), 9 wire extensometers, 4 vertical wire extensometers installed in one borehole, 5 water level sensors and 4 pore pressure gauges installed in boreholes, ombrograph and meteorological station. Data processing of GNSS measurements (data coverage, data precision) is aimed at estimation of data representativeness. Data analysis of GNSS measurements (magnitude and direction of displacement, displacement velocity, movement patterns) are aimed at definition of landslide movement parameters. Processing and analysis of groundwater level data include determination of representative time series and groundwater level parameters. The Kostanjek landslide activities also include field survey and sensor maintenance at 23 locations with installed equipment.
  • Correlation of the results of the Kostanjek landslide movement, rainfall and groundwater level data encompasses establishment of the relation between landslide movement and landslide triggers, since January 2013. Monitoring reports encompass documentation related to observations of landslide movement, groundwater level, rainfall and acceleration, preparation of background information necessary for landslide movement prediction and definition of conditions necessary for the establishment of an early warning system at the Kostanjek landslide.
  • Demonstration of equipment for monitoring of landslides and landslide causes, monitoring data and analysis and modelling of monitoring data in the framework of undergraduate, graduate and postgraduate studies. Four student visits from the Institute for Geography and Regional Research of the University of Vienna in 2014, 2015 and 2017.
Analytical procedure and test method
Analytical procedure

Test method


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Capital equipment
Name inventory Tech.characteristics Application Image

15 GNSS receiver and antenna with Trimble software T4D

GNSS receiver Trimble NetR9 TI-2, GNSS antena Trimble Zephyr Geodetic 2

Continuous monitoring of superficial landslide movement at the 15 stabilized points. Continuous monitoring results will be applied for interpretation of landslide displacement, velocity and acceleration.


GNSS prijemnik

GNSS antena

7 sets of accelerometers (installed in boreholes at depths of 1.5 m, 20 m and 90 m) with devices for continuous recording of data and software

Colibrys JGI-SVAC 3C MEMS Accelerometer Sensor (3 pcs) modified by Hanshin Co. (Japan) for installation in borehole with water proof case and cable.


Colibrys SF3000L 3-C MEMS Accelerometer Sensor (4 pcs).


 Seismic Source DAQ3-3 3CH high fidelity digital logger, 24bits ADC, 3 channel with GPS, connector cable, clock receiver and USB memory (10 pcs).

Continuous monitoring of acceleration in the underground or at the surface using 7 accelerometers installed in boreholes at different depths at the five locations at the area of the Kostanjek landslide. Results of continuous monitoring will be applied for interpretation of ground shaking caused by earthquake and/or landslide movement.

Akcelerometar 3
Akcelerometar 1
Akcelerometar 2

Small and medium sized equipment
Name inventory Tech.characteristics Application Image

DIVER

Sensor for measuring the water level measuring hydrostatic pressure sensor to measure atmospheric pressure with a base station and Win-Situ software.

Continuous water level monitoring at two superficial streams at the area of the Kostanjek landslide and in its vicinity. Monitoring results will be applied for determination of discharge and for correlation with precipitation data.

Diver 1

Diver 2

WIRE EXTENSOMETER

Wire extensometer with NetLG-501E device for digitally recording and storing data.

Continuous relative displacement monitoring at the area of the Kostanjek landslide using 13 wire extensometers: 8 long-spans; 1 short-span; 4 vertical extensometers in the borehole. Monitoring results will be applied for interpretation of landslide model and for development of early warning system.

Ekstenziometar 1
Ekstenziometar 2

SENSORS FOR MEASURING HYDROSTATIC PRESSURES

Sensor for measuring the water level measuring hydrostatic pressures
NetLG-001E device for digital data recording
.

Continuous water level monitoring at the area of the Kostanjek landslide on 3 locations in 3 wells. Monitoring results will be applied for interpretation of landslide model.


Senzor 1
Senzor 2

AUTOMATIC REGISTRATION OF PRECIPITATION (CONTAINER TO ROLLOVER - TIPPING BUCKET)

RS-1 automatic rainfall recorder (vessel to capsize - tipping bucket) and NETLG-201E device for digitally recording and storing measurement data.

Continuous rainfall monitoring at the Kostanjek landslide with the purpose of analysis and interpretation of rainfall influence to the landslide movement and development of early warning system.

Automatski registrator oborina

SENSORS FOR MEASURING PORE PRESSURE

KPB-PA sensors for measurement of pore pressures NetLG-104E device for digital data recording (data logger).

Continuous pore pressure monitoring at the area of the Kostanjek landslide in one borehole at the following depths: 62,8 m; 50,1 m; i 37,45 m. Monitoring results will be applied for interpretation of landslide model.

Senzori za mjerenje pornih pritisaka

Senzori za mjerenje pornih pritisaka 1

Teaching in the Observatory (students' practical work)

Teaching in the Observatory (students' practical work) in 2016/2017

Course title

Mandatory or Elective course

Number of hours of practical work in lab

Number of students per group

Number of groups

Engineering geology 2

Mandatory

5

10

2

Engineering geology

Mandatory

4

9

1

Engineering geology

Elective

4

16

1

Teaching in theObservatory (Students scientifice research)

Teaching in theObservatory in 2016/2017 (Students scientifice research)

Name and surname of student

Thesis title

BSc thesis

Marija Debeljak

Identification and description of the core from KS-2' hole on Kostanjek landslide, Zagreb

MSc thesis

Ines Štimac

The role of clay minerals in the activation of the Kostanjek landslide

Projects in the Observatory

Projects in the Observatory in 2016/2017 

Scientific research (including University support)

Hazard Analysis and Identification of Kostanjek landslide based on monitoring data (University support)

Croatian Virtual Landslide Data Center (IPL projekt)

Clay Mineralogy in Landslide Hazard Assessment (bilateralni Austrijsko-Hrvatski projekt)

 

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